Modafinil has been called the world’s first safe “smart drug,” and it’s beloved by entrepreneurs and millennials who claim it helps them power through 14-hour work days with unwavering focus. But what about long-term use? Many people take modafinil as a regular habit, and it’s important to understand the risks of this.
The long-term effects of modafinil are not well established. Three epidemiological studies, using a cohort design, have reported increased risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in modafinil users.
Buy Modafinil Online is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentration within two to four hours. It is moderately bound to plasma proteins (approximately 60 %), mainly to albumin, and is eliminated by the liver. The chief metabolite is modafinil acid, which has no pharmacological activity.
Several other drugs can increase the effectiveness of modafinil, including cyproheptadine (Persantine), dextromethorphan (Dextromethorphan), diphenhydramine (Benedryl), doxylamine-pemol (Dapsone), efavirenz (Revive) and theophylline. Modafinil can also decrease the effectiveness of hormonal birth control pills (pills, patches, or rings). Alternative methods of contraception should be used while taking this medication and for one month after completing therapy.
The arousal and activity-promoting effects of modafinil are mediated by changes in monoamine systems, with a primary effect on catecholamine systems and involving adrenergic a and b receptors and DA receptors. Moreover, modafinil increases extracellular levels of glutamate and glutamine, which may interact with the adrenergic mechanisms. The effect on glutamate appears to be related to the inhibition of reuptake by the NMDA receptors, while the increase in glutamine involves elevations of the pool, not synthesis.
While the long-term effects of modafinil remain unclear, evidence suggests it increases blood flow to brain areas that serve attention and learning. It also enhances activity in areas that manage skills like memory and problem-solving. The drug may also help compensate for cognitive decline associated with aging.
Unlike amphetamines, modafinil does not appear to affect the central dopamine system in the same way and has fewer adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. However, it can have an impact on glutamate systems in the brain. For example, it has been shown to increase the glutamate-glutamine pool in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of healthy subjects and narcoleptic patients with narcolepsy, accompanied by decreased the and d power in these areas (Saletu et al, 2007).
In one study, modafinil was compared to placebo in medication-free narcoleptic patients and was associated with improvements in performance on the Pauli test and trends toward better performance on delayed visual recognition memory tasks and a version of the Tower of London. The improvement in the digit span and Tower of London tests was also correlated with alterations in frontal and anterior cingulate cortical glutamate-glutamine ratios.
Taking modafinil over the long term can lead to addiction, so take it only as directed on the label. It can cause withdrawal symptoms when you stop suddenly, so talk to your doctor if you’ve been using this medication for a long time or in high doses.
Modafinil acts on dopamine centers in the brain and can produce euphoric effects, altering a person’s moods, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions like other stimulants. While it is prescribed for narcolepsy, it’s also often taken without a prescription by students and people seeking to boost their concentration and focus.
As with many stimulants, modafinil can be addictive. While it’s not as addictive as cocaine, it can be abused and users can become psychologically dependent on the drug. If you’re prone to addiction, you’ll likely have withdrawal symptoms when you stop taking it.
The withdrawal from modafinil can include fatigue, sleep disturbances, and a slowed heart rate. It can also cause anxiety, jitters, and depression. People with a history of mental health issues may experience more severe withdrawal symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, and mania.
While you’re not likely to test positive for modafinil if you’re undergoing a detox at a medical facility, some companies and professional gaming/e-sports teams do drug screens for specific prescription stimulant drugs. If you’re in a position where you have to stop using this drug, you should seek help immediately. In addition to helping you get through the physical side effects, a detox program should also teach you life skills and coping mechanisms that will help you stay sober after you’ve stopped taking Provigil.
The long-term use of modafinil and other drugs that are similar to it can affect your heart health. The drug may increase your blood pressure and could cause chest pain. It may also interfere with other medications that are prescribed to you. You should tell your doctor about any other drugs you are taking before beginning treatment with modafinil.
Many studies suggest that the drug enhances attention, improves learning and memory, and increases something called “fluid intelligence” — our ability to solve problems and think creatively. However the research on these benefits is mixed, and there are concerns about a potential addiction risk.
Several drugs interact with modafinil, including some over-the-counter medications and some foods. Your doctor must know about all of the drugs you take, even if they are not listed in the above table. In some cases, modafinil decreases the effectiveness of hormonal birth control pills (pills, rings, patches, implants, or intrauterine devices). You should use an alternative form of birth control while you are taking modafinil and for 1 month after you stop.
Also, modafinil may interact with several other prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as antidepressants, antacids, muscle relaxants, and antibiotics. These interactions can lead to serious side effects, such as a severe skin reaction (Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis) or psychiatric events.